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While the primary area of operations of LeT's terrorist activities is the Kashmir Valley, their professed goal is not limited to challenging India's sovereignty over Jammu and Kashmir. LeT sees the issue of Kashmir as part of a wider global struggle. The group has adopted maximalist agenda of global jihad though its operations have so far been limited to Kashmir. The group justifies its ideology on verse 2:216 of the Quran. Extrapolating from this verse, the group asserts that military jihad is a religious obligation of all Muslims and defines the many circumstances under which it must be carried out. In a pamphlet entitled "Why Are We Waging Jihad?", the group states that all of India along with many other countries were once ruled by Muslims and were Muslim lands, which is their duty to take it back from the non-Muslims. It declared United States, India, and Israel as "existential enemies of Islam". LeT believes that jihad is the duty of all Muslims and must be waged until eight objectives are met: Establishing Islam as the dominant way of life in the world, forcing disbelievers to pay jizya (a tax on non-Muslims), fighting for the weak and feeble against oppressors, exacting revenge for killed Muslims, punishing enemies for violating oaths and treaties, defending all Muslim states, and recapturing occupied Muslim territory. The group construes lands once ruled by Muslims as Muslim lands and considers it as their duty to get them back. It embraces a pan-Islamist rationale for military action.
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After the UNSC ban, Hindu minority groups in Pakistan came out in support of JuD. At protest marches in Hyderabad, Hindu groups said that JuD does charity work such as setting up water wells in desert regions and providing food to the poor. However, according to the BBC, the credibility of the level of support for the protest was questionable as protesters on their way to what they believed was a rally against price rises had been handed signs in support of JuD. The JuD ban has been met with heavy criticism in many Pakistani circles,[by whom?] as JuD was the first to react to the Kashmir earthquake and the Ziarat earthquake. It also ran over 160 schools with thousands of students and provided aid in hospitals as well. JuD disguises terrorist activities by showing fake welfare trusts.
LeT cadres have also been arrested in different cities of India. On 27 May, a LeT militant was arrested from Hajipur in Gujarat. On 15 August 2001, a LeT militant was arrested from Bhatinda in Punjab. Mumbai police's interrogation of LeT operative, Abu Jundal revealed that LeT has planned 10 more terror attacks across India and he had agreed to participate in these attacks. A top US counter-terrorism official, Daniel Benjamin, in a news conference on 31 July 2012, told that LeT was a threat to the stability in South Asia urging Pakistan to take strong action against the terror outfit. Interrogation of Jundal revealed that LeT was planning to carry out aerial attacks on Indian cities and had trained 150 paragliders for this. He knew of these plans when he visited a huge bungalow in eastern Karachi where top LeT men, supervised by a man called Yakub were planning aerial and sea route attacks on India.
1. At all relevant times from in or about 1989until the date of the filing of this Indictment, an international terroristgroup existed which was dedicated to opposing non-Islamic governments withforce and violence. This organization grew out of the "mekhtab al khidemat"(the "Services Office") organization which had maintained offices in variousparts of the world, including Afghanistan, Pakistan (particularly in Peshawar),and the United States. The group was founded by Usama Bin Laden and MuhammadAtef, a/k/a "Abu Hafs al Masry," together with "Abu Ubaidah al Banshiri," andothers. From in or about 1989 until the present, the group called itself "alQaeda" ("the Base"). From 1989 until in or about 1991, the group (hereafterreferred to as "al Qaeda") was headquartered in Afghanistan and Peshawar,Pakistan. In or about 1991, the leadership of al Qaeda, including its "emir"(or prince) Usama Bin Laden, relocated to the Sudan. Al Qaeda was headquarteredin the Sudan from approximately 1991 until approximately 1996 but stillmaintained offices in various parts of the world. In 1996, Usama Bin Laden andother members of al Qaeda relocated to Afghanistan. At all relevant times, alQaeda was led by its emir, Usama Bin Laden. Members of al Qaeda pledged an oathof allegiance (called a "bayat") to Usama Bin Laden and al Qaeda. Those whowere suspected of collaborating against al Qaeda were to be identified andkilled.
2. Bin Laden and al Qaeda violently opposed theUnited States for several reasons. First, the United States was regarded as an"infidel" because it was not governed in a manner consistent with the group'sextremist interpretation of Islam. Second, the United States was viewed asproviding essential support for other "infidel" governments and institutions,particularly the governments of Saudi Arabia and Egypt, the nation of Israel,and the United Nations organization, which were regarded as enemies of thegroup. Third, al Qaeda opposed the involvement of the United States armedforces in the Gulf War in 1991 and in Operation Restore Hope in Somalia in 1992and 1993. In particular, al Qaeda opposed the continued presence of Americanmilitary forces in Saudi Arabia (and elsewhere on the Saudi Arabian peninsula)following the Gulf War. Fourth, al Qaeda opposed the United States Governmentbecause of the arrest, conviction and imprisonment of persons belonging to alQaeda or its affiliated terrorist groups or those with whom it worked. Forthese and other reasons, Bin Laden declared a jihad, or holy war, against theUnited States, which he has carried out through al Qaeda and its affiliatedorganizations.
The following excerpts from the Moussaoui indictment outline Al Qaeda'sorigins, why it violently opposes the U.S., its goals, structure, organization, and affiliated groups, its training camps and business dealings, and its fatwahs and declarations of war against its enemies. (Note: the full indictment is available at the Department of Justice website.)
6. Usama Bin Laden and al Qaeda also forgedalliances with the National Islamic Front in the Sudan and with representativesof the government of Iran, and its associated terrorist group Hizballah, forthe purpose of working together against their perceived common enemies in theWest, particularly the United States.
7. Since at least 1989, until the filing of thisIndictment, Usama Bin Laden and the terrorist group al Qaeda sponsored,managed, and/or financially supported training camps in Afghanistan, whichcamps were used to instruct members and associates of al Qaeda and itsaffiliated terrorist groups in the use of firearms, explosives, chemicalweapons, and other weapons of mass destruction. In addition to providingtraining in the use of various weapons, these camps were used to conductoperational planning against United States targets around the world andexperiments in the use of chemical and biological weapons. These camps werealso used to train others in security and counterintelligence methods, such asthe use of codes and passwords, and to teach members and associates of al Qaedaabout traveling to perform operations. For example, al Qaeda instructed itsmembers and associates to dress in "Western" attire and to use other methods toavoid detection by security officials. The group also taught its members andassociates to monitor media reporting of its operations to determine theeffectiveness of their terrorist activities.
An initial step must be the criminalization of terrorism as such and non-terrorist activities that can help to facilitate terrorist operations, for instance financing-related mechanisms. The criminalization of terrorism and associated activities is paramount for a legal challenge against terrorism as such, generating court-based mechanisms and precedents that can be employed for targeting domestic terrorist activities.
Similar mechanisms would immensely benefit countries and their law enforcement systems in South Asia, where regional integration in various forms has been notoriously limited (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 2018). That said, South Asia too has forums and bodies facilitating regional dialogue, most notably BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation) and SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation), which could be utilized for further investigative integration and targeted financial sanctions against both individuals and entities connected to terror financing.
Access to a lawyer, a translator (if necessary) and a fair trial must all be prerequisites for a charge brought against an individual that has been accused of terrorist activities, regardless of whether that individual is guilty or not. If these aspects are not provided, the charges as well as the measures preceding the charges will lose their political legitimacy.
Both European and South Asian countries will have to keep terror organizations such as the ones discussed in this brief in check to avoid a further deterioration of regional security conditions. Buttressed by a strong ideological challenge against Islamic fundamentalism, these countries must improve their structural challenge against the organizational formations that threaten lives throughout Europe, the Middle East and Asia.